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Home 產業脈動 工業科技 電晶體是什麼?

電晶體是什麼?

0
電晶體是什麼?

電晶體是一種半導體元件,其中最常見的類型是「電晶體」和「場效電晶體」,具有控制和放大電流的能力,是現代電子裝置中非常重要的組成部分,如:各式消費性電子產品、電腦、手機…等電子設備。

由三個半導體層組成,通常是矽或砷化鎵等。這些層被稱為「基底」、「發射極」和「集電極」。

場效應電晶體(MOSFET)是另一種常見的電晶體類型。它與晶體管的工作原理有所不同,使用閘極電壓來控制電流、超低的Rds內阻抗。FET通常被用於放大和調節電信號、開關….等。

電晶體有多種型號,具有不同的特性和應用:

NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT):有三層,N-型半導體基底夾在兩個 P-型半導體層之間,常用於放大和開關應用。

PNP Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT):結構與 NPN 型相反,常用於放大和開關應用。

MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor):MOSFET 是場效應電晶體型號,根據閘極電壓的變化控制電流。
MOSFET分為N沖壓型和 P沖壓型,常用於數位邏輯電路和功率放大器。

JFET (Junction Field-Effect Transistor):JFET 是另一種常見的場效應電晶體型號,與 MOSFET 有所不同。
它使用 PN 接面上的反型區域來控制電流。JFET 有 N 型和 P 型兩種,通常用於低功率應用中的放大器和開關。

IGBT (Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor):IGBT 是一種結合了 MOSFET 和 BJT 特性的電晶體型號。
它具有低開關損耗和高耐壓能力,常用於高功率應用,如電力電子設備-電磁爐、各式變頻器、跑步機、電梯升降控制板………..等。

還有其他特定用途的型號,如可調電阻電晶體(VCR),積體電晶體(IT),双極電晶體(BPT)內含1個或2個電阻質….等等。

電晶體的包裝形式可以根據其封裝方式來區分:

TO-92:環氧樹脂EZPOXY封裝形式,用於低功率應用的電晶體。
有三個引腳,可以手工插入或焊接到PCB電路板上。

SOT-23/ SOT-323/ SOT-143/ SOT-523/ SOT-723/ SOT-363/:是一種小型環氧樹脂EZPOXY封裝,常見於小功率應用的電晶體。
有三個 四個 五個 六個PIN引腳,通常用於PCB表面貼裝技術(SMT)。

SOT-89/ SOT-223/ TO-252/ TO-263/ D-PACK/ D2-PAK:是一種中型塑膠封裝,常見於中功率應用的電晶體。有三個引腳,也常用於SMT。

DIP (Dual Inline Package):DIP 是一種直插式封裝,通常用於低至中功率應用的電晶體。
它有兩個平行的排列引腳,可以通過插入到PCB通孔中_連接到電路板。

QFP (Quad Flat Package):QFP 是一種表面貼裝封裝,常用於高密度集成電路和高功率應用的電晶體。

BGA (Ball Grid Array):BGA 是一種高密度表面貼裝封裝,通常用於大功率和高速應用的電晶體具有球形焊點陣列,用於與電路板的連接。

還有其他各式封裝:如TO-126、TO-220AB、SOT-186、SOT-923、SOP、SSOP、TSSOP、SMD、PLCC…等等。

資料來源:世研半導體